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Broughton Gifford

In the Hundred of Bradford on Avon, Wiltshire

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St Mary's Church, Broughton Gifford ..

St Mary’s Church, Broughton Gifford

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Broughton Gifford is the easternmost parish of the Bradford Hundred, bordering on Melksham. It was not a part of the Manor of Bradford that was given to Shaftesbury Abbey in 1001, although the name was mentioned at that time and it was still in the King’s hands at the time of Domesday Book in 1086. However, it was a part of the Bradford Hundred under the Abbess of Shaftesbury, who also held Broughton Church. It went on to be part of the Bradford & Melksham Rural District.

At the time of the Bradford grant in 1001, two men -Ælfric and Ælfwine- were named as holding land in Broughton. Domesday Book says that it was in the hands of three thanes in the time of Edward the Confessor (ie up to 1066), but William the Conqueror had granted it to Humphrey de l’Isle. The ownership of the manor became divided into many small portions until it was reunited by the Hortons of Bradford and Westwood in 1627 . It was purchased by Sir Benjamin Hobhouse in 1812 and his son, Sir John Cam Hobhouse, took his title from it as Lord Broughton. A separate manor, sometimes known as Broughton Parva or Little Broughton existed next to the River Avon and was owned by the Priory of Monkton Farleigh in the Middle Ages and itself became known as Monkton.

Etymology Broughton, broc-tun, might derive from broc, a badger, or more likely just from the brook that flows near the church. The Gifford or Giffard family held medieval estates all over the country, many of which had their name attached (eg. Stoke Gifford in Gloucestershire).

The land The parish is mainly situated on clays of Middle to Upper Jurassic date, with a terrace of Ice Age gravel along the River Avon in the south between Monkton and Challymead. Bordering the river are meadows that are liable to flood, including meadows on the opposite side that are shared between Broughton and the parish of Melksham Without.

Settlement The present village consists of a small original nucleus around the church and a long winding strip development along the road to the north. Two former areas of ‘waste’ land, once considered too wet and unhealthy- Broughton Gifford Common and Norrington Common- are now partly surrounded by houses that possibly grew from squatter settlements. Next to the River Avon there are small settlements at Challymead and at Monkton, although the latter largely became deserted, except for the big house and its farm.

Buildings There are 25 listed buildings, the outstanding ones being the parish church (Grade I), Monkton House (II*), Gifford Hall (II*), Broughton Manor House (II*), Egerton House and Hollybrook House.

Economy The 2001 Census recorded a population of 822 inhabitants in the parish, rising to 851 in 2011. Due to the nature of the underlying clay, farming is mainly sheep and cattle rearing, as part of the “cheese” area of Wiltshire’s “chalk and cheese”, although the widespread survival of  medieval ridge-and-furrow in Broughton’s fields testifies to a much greater area of arable farming in the past; recent ploughing out of these features shows a return to arable, if only to provided feed for livestock.  There was also plenty of woodland, but very little now. At one time the village was known for its geese, leading to the residents being nicknamed “ganders”. There was formerly a timber yard and E.A. Gore’s mattress factory and there is now a small industrial estate in The Street. Mortimer’s freight transport, founded in 1866 and now called Broughton Transport Solutions, is based in the village and there is a printing works. There is a primary school, have been two public houses –The Bell on the Common and sometimes The Fox [& Hounds] (it closed late in 2017 under the name Rusty Stag), but no shop, café or post office. Church Farm had a large meat-supply business until recently. Broughton was formerly served by a halt on the Wilts, Somerset & Weymouth (Great Western) Railway from 1905 to 1955. The village is now largely a dormitory for workers in Melksham, Chippenham and elsewhere. The proximity of Melksham means that Broughton now looks towards that town, rather than to its ancient links with Bradford.

Bradford on Avon Museum holds very few objects from Broughton Gifford. We are looking for old photographs and postcards as well as 3-dimensional items; can you help? Some Roman coins and various social history items are in the Wiltshire Museum in Devizes. .